GLOSSARY
  • Aarti – Hindu worship with lamps.

  • Ahir Gopal – A clan who deal with milk.

  • Amar Singh Rathod – King of Naugar, Rajasthan, 400 years ago, famous for his chivalry.

  • Apsaras – Celestial-dancing nymphs, sculpted in temples.

  • Aranyakanda – A section of Ramayana, describing exile of Rama.

  • Arjuna – Hero of the Mahabharata, to whom Krishna delivered the Bhagavad Gita.

  • Ashok Vatika – A forest where Ravana, the king of Lanka, interned Sita.

  • Ashoka – A Mauryan emperor, who ascended the throne in 273 BC. After the Kalinga war in 265 BC, he embraced Buddhism and became a saint.

  • Bahamani – The kingdom (1347-1526 AD), established by Zafar Khan, by revolting against Delhi. The rulers were all powerful soldiers, with their kingdom comprising Karnataka, Andhra and Maharashtra.

  • Balaram – Elder brother of Krishna, also an incarnation of Vishnu.

  • Balkanda – A section from Ramayana, describing childhood of Rama.

  • Bhagavatha puran- See Purana.

  • Bharatanatyam – The oldest among classical dance forms of India, traced back to the Dakshinaya style of dance referred to in Natyashastra. Developed chiefly in Tamil Nadu.

  • Bhoja – Mihir Bhoja (836-885 AD) was most celebrated and capable king, who extended his empire by defeating the contemporary Pala rulers. He is the hero of many folktales in Gujarat.

  • Brahma – The creator of the Universe. Mythologically, when Vishnu fell asleep, Brahma emerged on a lotus from the naval of Vishnu.

  • Chakra – A disc, called ‘Sudarshan Chakra’ possessed by Vishnu.

  • Chalukyas – Established by Pulakesin I in the 6th Century AD, carving out a small principality at Vatapi in Karnataka. Pulakesin II (609-642 AD) raised it to Zenith. The Chalukyas came to end in 753 AD.

  • Chenda – A hollow cylindrical wooden drum, both faces covered with thick parchments. Essential percussion instrument of Kerala, used with Kathakali dance and in the temple rituals.

  • Chende – Wooden cylindrical drum with both the faces covered with skin. Used in Yakshagana.

  • Chitra Katha / Chitrakathi – The community of picture showmen settled in Pinguli, Maharashtra. The man sits on the ground, keeps before him the painting and narrates mythological tales, to the accompaniment of musical instrument.

  • Chitragupta- The mythical accounts-keeper, recording good and bad deeds of mortals and dispatching them to heaven or hell.

  • Cholas – Beginning in 414 BC. The Chola monarchs rose to be the great builders, administrators and patrons of art. Tanjavur in Tamil Nadu was the capital of the Cholas.

  • Dhol – A big horizontal drum played on the sides by sticks.

  • Dholok – A horizontal drum played on the sides with both hands.

  • Domru – An hourglass-shaped drum with a string tied to the centre and a knot at the other end of the string. When the drum is rattled, the knotted end strikes the two faces alternately.

  • Dhoti – Fine cotton material, 4 to 5m, draped by men in most parts of India.

  • Edakka – An hour-glass-shaped two headed drum, slung from shoulder. The right face is struck with a stick.

  • Ganesha – The elephant-headed son of Shiva and Parvati, and Lord of the ganas (troops of lesser deities) attendant on him. He is the god of wisdom and remover of obstacles, propitiated at the beginning of any performance.

  • Gini – A small brass cymbal.

  • Gita – The dialogue between Arjuna and Krishna during the battle of Kurukshetra, analysing the knowledge, duty, religion and devotion. The best-known religio-philosophical book of Hindu scriptures, dating back to 200BC or earlier.

  • Gosthaleela – A part of Rasleela, depicting the childhood of Krishna.

  •  Hanswrust – Dutch counterpart of Punch.

  • Hanuman – The monkey-hero of the Ramayana and the ace-devotee of Rama, who found Sita in Lanka. Hanuman is worshipped across India.

  • Harappa – The site of the Indus civilisation, today a large village in Pakistan. Charles Massen first noticed the mound in Harappa in 1826, and Mortimer Wheeler conducted an organised excavation in 1946.

  • Hoysalas – Created by hill chieftains (1027-1343 AD) from the Western Ghats and spread mainly in Karnataka. They were patrons of art and sculpture, mainly in temple building. Halebid, Belur and Somnathpur were built in this period. They finally succumbed under the Turkish invasion.

  • Jadano Pat – Scroll paintings, carried by Patuas (painters): unrolled before the village audience, while narrating the mythological story related to a particular scroll.

  • Jalar - Brass gong.

  • Jatakas – Legends about Bodhisattvas, representing previous lives of the Buddha.

  • Jatra – Most popular form of folk theatre in Bengal and Orissa, performed in the round. Originated from the Vaishnavite musical plays based on the Krishna theme in Bengal, started in 16th century by Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Later covering even social themes.

  • Kabuji - A pair of brass cymbals.

  • Kakatiya – A royal dynasty, origins unknown. Kakatiyas (10th – 1326 AD) were powerful landowners in Warangal, Andhra Pradesh, and great patrons of learning.
    Kali – a small drum used in Kerala.

  • Kalidasa – Court poet of Vikramaditya. Wrote four major works of poetry: Ritu Samhara (Cycle of Season), Meghaduta (Cloud messenger), Raghuvamsa (Life of Rama), Kumarsambhava (Birth of Kartikeya) and three notable plays: Malavikagnimitra, Vikramorvasiya and Shakuntala.

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