Aarti Hindu worship with lamps.
Ahir Gopal A clan who deal with milk.
Amar Singh Rathod King of Naugar, Rajasthan,
400 years ago, famous for his chivalry.
Apsaras Celestial-dancing nymphs,
sculpted in temples.
Aranyakanda A section of Ramayana, describing exile of Rama.
Arjuna Hero of the Mahabharata,
to whom Krishna delivered the Bhagavad
Ashok Vatika A forest where Ravana, the
king of Lanka, interned Sita.
Ashoka A Mauryan emperor, who ascended
the throne in 273 BC. After the Kalinga war in 265 BC, he embraced
Buddhism and became a saint.
Bahamani The kingdom (1347-1526 AD),
established by Zafar Khan, by revolting against Delhi. The rulers
were all powerful soldiers, with their kingdom comprising Karnataka,
Andhra and Maharashtra.
Balaram Elder brother of Krishna,
also an incarnation of Vishnu.
Balkanda A section from Ramayana, describing childhood of Rama.
Bhagavatha puran- See Purana.
Bharatanatyam The oldest among classical
dance forms of India, traced back to the Dakshinaya style of dance
referred to in Natyashastra. Developed chiefly in Tamil Nadu.
Bhoja Mihir Bhoja (836-885 AD)
was most celebrated and capable king, who extended his empire
by defeating the contemporary Pala rulers. He is the hero of many
folktales in Gujarat.
Brahma The creator of the Universe.
Mythologically, when Vishnu fell asleep, Brahma emerged on a lotus
from the naval of Vishnu.
Chakra A disc, called Sudarshan
Chakra possessed by Vishnu.
Chalukyas Established by Pulakesin
I in the 6th Century AD, carving out a small principality
at Vatapi in Karnataka. Pulakesin II (609-642 AD) raised it to
Zenith. The Chalukyas came to end in 753 AD.
Chenda A hollow cylindrical wooden
drum, both faces covered with thick parchments. Essential percussion
instrument of Kerala, used with Kathakali dance and in the temple
Chende Wooden cylindrical drum with
both the faces covered with skin. Used in Yakshagana.
Chitra Katha / Chitrakathi The community of picture showmen settled in Pinguli,
Maharashtra. The man sits on the ground, keeps before him the
painting and narrates mythological tales, to the accompaniment
of musical instrument.
Chitragupta- The mythical accounts-keeper,
recording good and bad deeds of mortals and dispatching them to
heaven or hell.
Cholas Beginning in 414 BC. The
Chola monarchs rose to be the great builders, administrators and
patrons of art. Tanjavur in Tamil Nadu was the capital of the
Dhol A big horizontal drum played
on the sides by sticks.
Dholok A horizontal drum played
on the sides with both hands.
Domru An hourglass-shaped drum
with a string tied to the centre and a knot at the other end of
the string. When the drum is rattled, the knotted end strikes
the two faces alternately.
Dhoti Fine cotton material, 4
to 5m, draped by men in most parts of India.
Edakka An hour-glass-shaped two
headed drum, slung from shoulder. The right face is struck with
Ganesha The elephant-headed son of
Shiva and Parvati, and Lord of the ganas
(troops of lesser deities) attendant on him. He is the god of
wisdom and remover of obstacles, propitiated at the beginning
of any performance.
Gini A small brass cymbal.
Gita The dialogue between Arjuna
and Krishna during the battle of Kurukshetra, analysing the knowledge,
duty, religion and devotion. The best-known religio-philosophical
book of Hindu scriptures, dating back to 200BC or earlier.
Gosthaleela A part of Rasleela, depicting the childhood of Krishna.
Hanswrust Dutch counterpart of Punch.
Hanuman The monkey-hero of the Ramayana and the ace-devotee of Rama, who
found Sita in Lanka. Hanuman is worshipped across India.
Harappa The site of the Indus civilisation,
today a large village in Pakistan. Charles Massen first noticed
the mound in Harappa in 1826, and Mortimer Wheeler conducted an
organised excavation in 1946.
Hoysalas Created by hill chieftains
(1027-1343 AD) from the Western Ghats and spread mainly in Karnataka.
They were patrons of art and sculpture, mainly in temple building.
Halebid, Belur and Somnathpur were built in this period. They
finally succumbed under the Turkish invasion.
Jadano Pat Scroll paintings, carried
by Patuas (painters): unrolled before the village audience, while
narrating the mythological story related to a particular scroll.
Jalar - Brass gong.
Jatakas Legends about Bodhisattvas,
representing previous lives of the Buddha.
Jatra Most popular form of folk
theatre in Bengal and Orissa, performed in the round. Originated
from the Vaishnavite musical plays based on the Krishna theme
in Bengal, started in 16th century by Sri Chaitanya
Mahaprabhu. Later covering even social themes.
Kabuji - A pair of brass cymbals.
Kakatiya A royal dynasty, origins
unknown. Kakatiyas (10th 1326 AD) were powerful landowners
in Warangal, Andhra Pradesh, and great patrons of learning.
Kali a small drum used in Kerala.
- Kalidasa Court poet of Vikramaditya.
Wrote four major works of poetry: Ritu Samhara (Cycle of Season), Meghaduta
(Cloud messenger), Raghuvamsa
(Life of Rama), Kumarsambhava
(Birth of Kartikeya) and three notable plays: Malavikagnimitra,
Vikramorvasiya and Shakuntala.