GLOSSARY

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  • Kamasutra – Old classic, written by Vatsyayan on intimate human relationship

  • Kansi – Brass plate struck by a wooden stick.
  • Kaspearle – Counterpart of Punch in Germany.
  • Kartal – Big brass cymbal.
  • Kathakali -- Dance-drama style of Kerala, performed to the throbbing beats of the chenda. Originated from Sanskrit theatre and several devotional dance-theatres in the region.
  • Kathasaritsagar- Literally ‘Sea of Stories’, written by Somdeva.
  • Kaurava – Descendents of Kuru clan, who fought their cousin Pandavas in the Mahabharata.
  • Khanjira – Single-faced open drum, with skin stretched over one side and small cymbals woven into the frame, similar to a tambourine

  • Khol – A barrel-shaped drum.
  • Khanjari - A type of tambourine, made of wood and covered with the skin of Godhi snake.
  • Kuchipudi – Religious dance-drama style from the village Kuchipudi in Andhra Pradesh on the banks of Krishna river, reputedly created by Siddhendra Yogi, a Krishna devotee, in 16th century.
  • Kurals – Tamil poems written in 2nd century BC by Tiruvalluvar

  • Lakshmi – Goddess of wealth, seated or standing on the lotus flower. Venerated as consort of Vishnu and worshipped as harbinger of prosperity
  • Laxman – Brother of Rama in the epic Ramayana.
  • Madalam/Maddale - A variation of the mridamgam.
  • Mahabharata – Great epic poem written by Vyasa. Divided in 18 books (Parvas), containing about 220,000 lines.
  • Mahashivaratri/ Shivaratri – Austere festival in the month of Feb-March. Prayer, fasting and penance for past sins, nightlong vigil and ritual worship of the Shiva Linga mark this festival.
  • Mandira – Small brass cymbals.
  • Mohenjodaro – Literally ‘place of the dead’ and situated in Larkana district of Sindh, Pakistan. R.D.Banerjee first discovered this site of Indus Civilisation in 1922.

  • Mridang/ Mridangam – A barrel-shaped percussion instrument played horizontally with the hands.

  • Mughals – The royal dynasty in India established by Babar in 1526 AD. His son Humayun established the foundation of the sixth city, Din Panah. Akbar was the greatest of the Mughal kings, who constructed Fatehpr Sikri. Shahjahan, the fifth Mughal ruler, constructed the beautiful Taj Mahal at Agra and Red Fort in Delhi. The limits of the empire expanded farthest, especially in South, under Aurangazeb. The empire ended in 1857, after the British deposed Bahadur Shah Zafar.

  •  Mukhaveena -- A woodwind instrument with a conical tube-body and provided with a mouthpiece.

  • Nagara – A conical drum with a huge semi-spherical resonator.

  • Nam Kirtan – Devotional group-singing by the Vaishnavites.

  • Nandi – A bull as Shiva’s vehicle, a symbol of fertility.

  • Narada -- One of the seven great rishis (saints) and inventor of veena, who is said to travel heaven, hell and earth with lute in hand.

  • Natyashastra – Treatise on music, dance and theatre, written by Bharata in 2nd Century AD. It has 37 chapters, comprising over of 5500 verses.

  • NCERT-- National Centre for Educational Research and Training, a government body entrusted to make syllabus of school education and publish books accordingly.

  • Nimbuwala – The puppet that shows tricks with a lemon (nimbu) in Kathputli.

  • Ottu – A wind instrument made of a cylindrical ebony tube-body, used as a drone.

  • Paithani style – A painting style belonging to Paithon region, Maharashtra.

  • Pakhawaj – A barrel-shaped drum.

  • Pallava – A royal dynasty with capital at Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu, who assumed power in 3rd Century AD.  The first great ruler was Sivaskanda Varman in 4th Century.

  • Panchavati – A picturesque forest, where Rama, Sita and Lakshman lived in exile.

  • Panini – A well-known grammarian in ancient times.

  • Papier-Mβchι – Inexpensive raw material made out of wet pulp of paper.

  • Patanjali -- The great grammarian of 2nd century BC, who wrote a commentary on Panini’s work.

  • Petromax – A large kerosene-lamp.

  • Phad – Stories of folk heroes of Rajasthan, painted on a long cloth and narrated by the folk singer-couple Bhopa and Bhopi. The story of Pabuji is particularly popular.

  • Prithiraj Chauhan – The last Hindu ruler of Delhi in the 12th century.

  • Puja – The ritual offerings to the Hindu gods accompanied by chants and prayers.

  •   Purana – Ancient and traditional stories, falling into three main groups: Brahma Purana, Vishnu Purana and Shiva Purana.

  • Purbaranga – Pujas enacted, according to Natyashastra, before the actual performance.

  • Rajah – The quality of foul and violent passion, producing pain, anger and jealousy.

  • Rama – The hero of Ramayana who is the incarnation of Vishnu.

  • Ramayana – The oldest of the Sanskrit epic poems, written by the sage Valmiki. Composed in 5th century BC and divided in to seven sections (Kanda), containing about 50,000 lines.

  • Ramtali - Wooden castanets 8 inches in length.

  • Rashtrakutas – The royal dynasty of South, spanning 6th to10th century.

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